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incumbent

noun

adjective

  1. (geology)  lying or leaning on something else
    Topic: geology. Similar to: superjacent
  2. (necessary)  necessary (for someone) as a duty or responsibility; morally binding
    Similar to: necessary
  3. (current)  currently holding an office
    Similar to: current

Etymology summary

Medieval Latin incumbentem (nominative incumbens) "holder of a church position",...
(Source: Online Etymology)  [more]

Definition references

Wikipedia:

Incumbent | open seat

the existing holder of a political office. This term is usually used in reference to elections, in which races can often be defined as being between an incumbent and non-incumbent. For example, in the 2012 United States presidential election, Barack... (40 of 853 words)

en​.wikipedia​.org​/wiki​/Incumbent

Collins Dictionary:

incumbent | obligatory [synonym, sense-specific] | incumbently [adverb, derived]

[formal] postpositive and followed by on or upon and an infinitive morally binding or necessary; obligatory | postpositive and followed by on resting ... (22 of 537 words, 3 definitions, 10 usage examples, pronunciation)

www​.collinsdictionary​.com​/dictionary​/english​/incumbent

Merriam-Webster:

incumbent [entry 1, noun]

the holder of an office or ecclesiastical benefice | one that occupies a particular position or place (16 of 217 words, 2 definitions, pronunciation)

www​.merriam-webster​.com​/dictionary​/incumbent

incumbent [entry 2, adjective] | obligatory [synonym, sense-specific] | compulsory [synonym, sense-specific] | forced [synonym, sense-specific] | imperative [synonym, sense-specific] | mandatory [synonym, sense-specific] | involuntary [synonym, sense-specific] | necessary [synonym, sense-specific] | nonelective [synonym, sense-specific] | ...

imposed as a duty; "obligatory" | having the status of an incumbent (see "incumbent" [entry 1]) ; especially, occupying a specified office | lying or ... (23 of 208 words, 4 definitions, 4 usage examples, pronunciation)

www​.merriam-webster​.com​/dictionary​/incumbent show=1

Oxford Dictionary:

incumbent | incumbent on/upon

("incumbent on/upon") : necessary for (someone) as a duty or responsibility | [attributive] : (of an official or regime) currently holding office | ... (21 of 122 words, 5 definitions, 4 usage examples, pronunciation)

oxforddictionaries​.com​/definition​/english​/incumbent

Wiktionary:

incumbent | incumbents [plural]

Imposed on someone as an obligation, especially due to one's office. | [geology] Resting on something else. | Being the current holder of an office or a title. | The current holder of an office, such as ecclesiastical benefice or an elected office. | ... (40 of 95 words, 5 definitions, 4 usage examples)

en​.wiktionary​.org​/wiki​/incumbent

American Heritage Dictionary:

incumbent | incumbently [adverb, related]

Imposed as an obligation or duty; obligatory | Lying, leaning, or resting on something else | Currently holding a specified office | A person who ... (22 of 90 words, 4 definitions, 4 usage examples, pronunciation)

www​.yourdictionary​.com​/incumbent

Random House Dictionary:

incumbent | obligatory [synonym, sense-specific]

holding an indicated position, role, office, etc., currently. | obligatory (often followed by "on" or "upon") | [archaic] resting, lying, leaning, or ... (20 of 69 words, 5 definitions, 4 usage examples, pronunciation)

dictionary​.infoplease​.com​/incumbent

Macmillan British Dictionary:

incumbent [formal, adjective] | be incumbent on/upon someone to do something

holding an official position at the present time | "be incumbent on/upon someone to do something": [formal] to be someone's duty or responsibility to ... (23 of 49 words, 2 definitions, 1 usage example, pronunciation)

www​.macmillandictionary​.com​/dictionary​/british​/incumbent 6

incumbent [countable, formal] | incumbents [plural]

someone who has an official position (6 of 37 words, 1 usage example, pronunciation)

www​.macmillandictionary​.com​/dictionary​/british​/incumbent

New World Dictionary:

incumbent

lying, resting, or pressing with its weight on something else | currently in office | the holder of an office or benefice (20 of 43 words, 3 definitions, pronunciation)

www​.yourdictionary​.com​/incumbent

Cambridge Dictionary:

incumbent [entry 1, usually before noun]

officially having the named position (5 of 23 words, 1 usage example, pronunciation)

dictionary​.cambridge​.org​/dictionary​/british​/incumbent 1

incumbent [entry 2, formal] | be incumbent on/upon someone | be incumbent on someone | be incumbent upon someone

to be necessary for someone (5 of 26 words, 1 usage example, pronunciation)

dictionary​.cambridge​.org​/dictionary​/british​/incumbent 2

incumbent [entry 3]

the person who has or had a particular official position (10 of 28 words, 2 usage examples, pronunciation)

dictionary​.cambridge​.org​/dictionary​/british​/incumbent 3

Encarta Dictionary:

incumbent | incumbents [plural]

somebody currently holding an official post, especially in a church or political organization | necessary as a result of a duty, responsibility, or ... (22 of 89 words, 3 definitions, pronunciation)

encarta​.msn​.com​/dictionary 1861620766​/definition​.html  [offline]

Etymology references

Online Etymology:

incumbent

First use: early 15th century

Origin: Medieval Latin incumbentem (nominative incumbens) "holder of a church position", from present participle of incumbere "to obtain ... (20 of 76 etymology words)

www​.etymonline​.com​/index​.php term=incumbent

American Heritage Dictionary:

incumbent

Origin: Middle English, holder of an office, from Medieval Latin incumbēns, incumbent-, from Latin, present participle of ... (16 of 32 etymology words)

www​.yourdictionary​.com​/incumbent

Oxford Dictionary:

incumbent | incumbent on/upon

Origin: late Middle English (as a noun): from Anglo-Latin incumbens, incumbent-, from Latin incumbere "lie or lean on", from in- ... (19 of 26 etymology words)

oxforddictionaries​.com​/definition​/english​/incumbent

Wiktionary:

incumbent | incumbents [plural]

Origin: Middle English, from stem incumbent-, of Medieval Latin incumbēns ("holder of a church position"), from Latin present participle of incumbō ("I lie down upon").

en​.wiktionary​.org​/wiki​/incumbent

Collins Dictionary:

incumbent

First use: 16th century

Origin: from Latin incumbere to lie upon, devote one's attention to, from in-2 + -cumbere, related to Latin cubāre to lie down

www​.collinsdictionary​.com​/dictionary​/english​/incumbent

New World Dictionary:

incumbent

Origin: Latin incumbens, present participle of incumbere, to recline or rest on from in-, on + cubare, to lie down: see "cube"

www​.yourdictionary​.com​/incumbent

Merriam-Webster:

incumbent [entry 1, noun]

First use: 15th century

Origin: Middle English, from Anglo-French, from Latin incumbent-, incumbens, present participle of incumbere to lie down on, from ... (19 of 29 etymology words)

www​.merriam-webster​.com​/dictionary​/incumbent

Encarta Dictionary:

incumbent | incumbents [plural]

First use: 15th century

Origin: Latin incumbent-, present participle of incumbere "lie in or on" from -cumbere "lie down"

encarta​.msn​.com​/dictionary 1861620766​/definition​.html  [offline]

Audio references

Collins Dictionary:

incumbent

Audio: North American English pronunciation of "incumbent"

www​.collinsdictionary​.com​/dictionary​/english​/incumbent

Macmillan British Dictionary:

incumbent [formal, adjective]

Audio: British English pronunciation of "incumbent"

www​.macmillandictionary​.com​/dictionary​/british​/incumbent 6

incumbent [countable, formal] | incumbents [plural]

Audio: British English pronunciation of "incumbent"

www​.macmillandictionary​.com​/dictionary​/british​/incumbent

Macmillan American Dictionary:

incumbent [formal, adjective]

Audio: North American pronunciation of "incumbent"

www​.macmillandictionary​.com​/dictionary​/american​/incumbent 6

incumbent [countable, formal] | incumbents [plural]

Audio: North American pronunciation of "incumbent"

www​.macmillandictionary​.com​/dictionary​/american​/incumbent

Cambridge Dictionary:

incumbent [entry 3]

Audio 1: British English pronunuciation of "incumbent"

Audio 2: North American English pronunuciation of "incumbent"

dictionary​.cambridge​.org​/dictionary​/british​/incumbent 3

the Free Dictionary:

incumbent

Audio 1: North American English pronunciation of "incumbent"

Audio 2: British English pronunciation of "incumbent"

Audio 3: North American English pronunciation of "incumbent" by speech synthesizer

www​.thefreedictionary​.com​/incumbent

Merriam-Webster Pronunciation:

incumbent

Audio: North American pronunciation of "incumbent"

www​.merriam-webster​.com​/audio​.php file=incumb​02 word=incumbent

YourDictionary Audio:

incumbent

Audio: North American English pronunciation of "incumbent" by speech synthesizer

www​.yourdictionary​.com​/incumbent

Page last updated: 2013-06-26

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