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drudgery

Definition:

hard monotonous routine work

Class:

act noun (acts and actions)

Related to:

drudge

Plural:

drudgeries

Original source:

Princeton WordNet

Etymology:

see "drudge" and "-ery"
(Source: New World Dictionary)  [more]

Definition references  (+images)

Wikipedia:

Laborer | labourer

see variation in English spelling -- is a person who does one of the construction trades, traditionally considered unskilled manual labor, as opposed to skilled labor. In the division of labor, laborers have all blasting, hand tools, power tools, air ... (39 of 1495 words, 2 images)

en​.wikipedia​.org​/wiki​/Laborer

Collins Dictionary:

drudgery | drudgeries [plural] | draft-mule work [United States, Canadian, synonym] | donkey-work [United States, Canadian, synonym, Britain and certain other countries]

hard, menial, and monotonous work (5 of 455 words, 9 usage examples, pronunciation)

www​.collinsdictionary​.com​/dictionary​/english​/drudgery

Merriam-Webster:

drudgery | drudgeries [plural] | donkeywork [synonym] | drudge [synonym] | toil [entry 1, synonym] | fatigue [entry 1, synonym] | grind [entry 1, synonym] | labor [entry 1, synonym] | moil [entry 1, synonym] | ...

dull, irksome, and fatiguing work; uninspiring or menial labor (9 of 117 words, 1 usage example, pronunciation)

www​.merriam-webster​.com​/dictionary​/drudgery

Macmillan British Dictionary:

drudgery [uncountable]

boring and unpleasant work that you have to do (9 of 33 words, pronunciation)

www​.macmillandictionary​.com​/dictionary​/british​/drudgery

Oxford Dictionary:

drudgery

hard menial or dull work (5 of 33 words, 1 usage example, pronunciation)

oxforddictionaries​.com​/definition​/english​/drudgery

Cambridge Dictionary:

drudgery | drudge [noun, derived]

hard boring work (3 of 29 words, 2 usage examples, pronunciations)

dictionary​.cambridge​.org​/dictionary​/british​/drudgery

Wiktionary:

drudgery | tedium [synonym] | moil [synonym] | wearisome [synonym] | drudgeries [plural]

tedious, menial and exhausting work (5 of 27 words, 1 usage example)

en​.wiktionary​.org​/wiki​/drudgery

New World Dictionary:

drudgery | drudgeries [plural]

work that is hard, menial, or tiresome (7 of 17 words, pronunciation)

www​.yourdictionary​.com​/drudgery

American Heritage Dictionary:

drudgery | drudgeries [plural] | drudgework

Tedious, menial, or unpleasant work. (5 of 14 words, pronunciation)

www​.yourdictionary​.com​/drudgery

Random House Dictionary:

drudgery | drudgeries [plural]

menial, distasteful, dull, or hard work. (6 of 13 words, pronunciation)

dictionary​.infoplease​.com​/drudgery

Britannica Encyclopedia:

labour [economics] | labor

in economics, the general body of wage earners. It's in this sense, for example, that one speaks of "organized labour." In a more special and ... (25 of 625 words, 2 images)

www​.britannica​.com​/E​Bchecked​/topic​/326796​/labour

Columbia Encyclopedia:

labor

term used both for the effort of performing a task and for the workers engaged in the activity. In ancient times much of the work was done by slaves ... (29 of 280 words)

www​.infoplease​.com​/ce​6​/bus​/A​0828480​.html

birth | labor | natural childbirth

delivery of the fetus by the viviparous mammal. Birth is also known as parturition. Human birth normally occurs about 280 days after onset of the last ... (26 of 33 words)

www​.infoplease​.com​/ce​6​/sci​/A​0807670​.html

Encarta Dictionary:

drudgery

exhausting, boring, unpleasant work (4 of 18 words, pronunciation)

encarta​.msn​.com​/dictionary 1861606711​/definition​.html  [offline]

Etymology references

New World Dictionary:

drudgery | drudgeries [plural]

Origin: see "drudge" and "-ery"

www​.yourdictionary​.com​/drudgery

Online Etymology:

drudgery

First use: 1540s

Origin: "drudge" + "-ery".

www​.etymonline​.com​/index​.php term=drudgery

drudge

First use: late 15th century

Origin: "one employed in mean, servile, or distasteful work", missing in Old English and Middle English (but compare Middle English druggen "do menial ... (25 of 72 etymology words)

www​.etymonline​.com​/index​.php term=drudge

-ery

Origin: suffix forming nouns meaning "place for, art of, condition of, quantity of", from Middle English -erie, from Latin -arius.

www​.etymonline​.com​/index​.php term=-ery

Audio references

Collins Dictionary:

drudgery | drudgeries [plural]

Audio: North American English pronunciation of "drudgery"

www​.collinsdictionary​.com​/dictionary​/english​/drudgery

Macmillan British Dictionary:

drudgery [uncountable]

Audio: British English pronunciation of "drudgery"

www​.macmillandictionary​.com​/dictionary​/british​/drudgery

Macmillan American Dictionary:

drudgery [uncountable]

Audio: North American pronunciation of "drudgery"

www​.macmillandictionary​.com​/dictionary​/american​/drudgery

Cambridge Dictionary:

drudgery

Audio 1: British English pronunuciation of "drudgery"

Audio 2: North American English pronunuciation of "drudgery"

dictionary​.cambridge​.org​/dictionary​/british​/drudgery

the Free Dictionary:

drudgery

Audio 1: North American English pronunciation of "drudgery"

Audio 2: British English pronunciation of "drudgery"

Audio 3: North American English pronunciation of "drudgery" by speech synthesizer

www​.thefreedictionary​.com​/drudgery

Google Dictionary:

drudgery

Audio: English pronunciation of "drudgery"

www​.google​.com​/#hl=en&tbs=dfn​:1&fp=1&q=drudgery

Merriam-Webster Pronunciation:

drudgery

Audio: North American pronunciation of "drudgery"

www​.merriam-webster​.com​/audio​.php file=drudge​02 word=drudgery

YourDictionary Audio:

drudgery

Audio: North American English pronunciation of "drudgery" by speech synthesizer

www​.yourdictionary​.com​/drudgery

Page last updated: 2013-06-26

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